Example : lets 4 12V batteries are connected in series, then the combination will produce volts. In series combination the current or amperage is same. So if these devices were batteries and each battery had a rating of 12 Volts and 100 Ah then the total value of this series circuit would be 48 Volt, 100Ah. If they were solar panels and each solar panel had a rating of 17 volts(Osc voltage) and were rated at 5 amps each then the total circuit value would be 68 volts, 5 amps. Parallel Connection : In parallel connection you must connect the positive terminal of the first device to the positive terminal of the next device and negative terminal of the first device to the negative terminal of the next device. In parallel connection the voltage is remain same but the current rating of the circuit is sum of all the devices.
Diy off grid solar system - instructables
I made around 1Sq feet size rough surface over the roof at each is is helpful for perfect bonding between the roof and concrete. Prepare concrete mix : take cement and stones with 1:3 ratio then add water to make a thick mix. Pour concrete mix at each leg of the stand. I made a heap shape concrete mix to give maximum strength. Mounts the panels to the stand : At the back sides the solar panel have inbuilt holes for tch the solar panel holes with the stand/platform holes and screw them together. Wire the solar panel : At the back sides of the solar panel a small junction box is there with positive and negative sign for polarity. In a large size solar panel this junction box have terminal wires with MC4 connector but for small size panel you have to connect the junction box with external report ways try to use red and black wire for the positive and negative terminal connection. If there is provision for earth wire the use a green wire for wiring this. Step 7: series and parallel connection after the calculating the battery capacity and solar panel rating you have to wiring many cases the calculated solar panel size or battery is not readily available in the form of single unit in the you have to add. Series Connection : to wire any device in series you must connect the positive terminal of one device to the negative terminal of the next e device in our case may be solar panel or battery. In series connection the individual voltages of each device is additive.
Now it is time to mount the solar rst choose a suitable location on the roof top where there is no obstruction sunlight. Prepare the mounting stand : you can make it by your own or it is better to buy one from any my case i have taken the drawing from the solar panel company and made it at near by welding e tilt of the stand. I made a small wooden mounting stand for my 10 Watt solar panel. I have attached the pictures, so that any one can made it easily. Tilting : to get the most from solar panels, you need to point them in the direction that captures the maximum sun e one of these formulas to find the best angle from the horizontal at which the panel should be tilted: if your latitude. if your latitude is between 25 and 50, use the latitude, times.76, plus.1 degrees. For more details on tilting click here first place the stand in such a way that the face is directed towards rk the leg position over the roof. To get the south direction use this android app compass Then make rough surface at each leg of the stand by using a sharp object.
So as per my opinion choose a pure sine wave inverter. It may be grid tie or stand alone. In our case it is obviously stand alone. Rating of inveter : The power rating should be equal or more than the total load in watt at any instant. In our case the maximum load at any instant tv (50W) Fan (80W) cfl (11W) 141w by taking some margin we can choose a 200W inverter. As our system is 12 v we have to select a 12v dc to 230V/50hz or 110V/60hz ac pure sine wave inverter. Note : Appliances like fridge,hair drier,vacuum cleaner, washing machine etc likely to have their starting power consumption several times greater than their normal working power (typically this is caused by electric motors or capacitors in such appliances). This should be taken into account when choosing the right size of inverter. Step 6: mounting the solar panel after design the solar y all the components with appropriate rating as per the previous steps.
Home built Solar Power System
But the next rating controller available in the market is 20A. So choose a charge controller of 12 v and current rating.0. Note : If you paper get 15A Charge controller, then also it work. If you like to reduce your system cost you can make a pwm charge r step by step instruction you can see my instructable on future pwm charge controller. You may also like my new design on solar charge controller.
Step 5: inverter selection solar panel (PV) that receive the suns rays and convert them into electricity called direct current (DC). Dc is then converted into alternating current (AC) through a device called an Inverter. Ac electricity flows through every outlet of your home, powering the appliances. Modified Sine wave. Pure sine wave square wave inverter is cheaper among the all but not suitable for all dified Sine wave output is also not suitable for certain appliances, particularly those with capacitive and electromagnetic devices such as: a fridge, microwave oven and most kinds of motors. Typically modified sine wave inverters work at lower efficiency than pure sine wave inverters.
You can round off to 80 Ah Step 4: charge controller selection a solar charge controller is a device which is placed between a solar panel and a battery. It regulates the voltage and current coming from your solar panels. It is used to maintain the proper charging voltage on the batteries. As the input voltage from the solar panel rises, the charge controller regulates the charge to the batteries preventing any over charging. Usually, the solar power systems uses 12 volt batteries, however Solar panels can deliver far more voltage than is required to charge the batteries. By, in essence, converting the excess voltage into amps, the charge voltage can be kept at an optimal level while the time required to fully charge the batteries is reduced.
This allows the solar power system to operate optimally at all times. Types of Charge controller :.on off. Mppt among the 3 charge controllers mppt have highest efficiency but it is you can use either pwm or mppt. Mppt charge controller is most effective under these conditions :. Cold weather, cloudy or hazy days. When battery is deeply discharged Try to avoid the on/off charge controller as it is the least efficient. Rating of charge controller : Since our system is rated 12v, charge controller is also 12v current rating power output of Panels / Voltage 120 W/ 12V 10 a by taking 30 margin, you can choose a 13A charge controller.
Dual axis sun, solar, tracker Controller for, solar
In this project i am selecting the 12 V system. Rating of battery: Batteries capacity are rated in term father's of Ampere hour. PowerVoltage x current, watt hour Voltage (Volts) x Current (Amperes) x Time (Hours). Battery voltage 12V ( as our system is 12V). Battery capacity load /Voltage 475/12.58 Ah Practically battery are not ideal, so we have to consider the loss. Let type the battery loss. So battery capacity required.58 /.85.56 Ah For better battery life, they are not allowed to discharge fully (100 ).For flooded lead acid battery 60 depth of discharge (DOD) is considered as good practice. So capacity required.56 /0.6.61 Ah you can select a deep cycle lead acid battery with capacity more than.61.
The above problem is solved by using a battery to store the solar power during the day time and use it according to your choice. It will provide constant source of stable, reliable power. There are various kind of Batteries. Car and bike batteries are designed for supplying short bursts of high current and then be recharged and are not designed for a deep discharge. But the solar battery is a deep-cycle lead-acid battery that allows for partial discharge and allows for deep slow discharge. Lead acid tubular battery is perfect for a solar system. Ni-mh batteries and li-ion batteries are also used khan many small power application. Note : Before going to choose the components decide your system voltage 12/24 or. Higher the voltage lesser the current and lesser will be the copper loss in the is will reduce your conductor size most of the small home solar system have 12 or.
size should be selected in such way that it will charge the battery fully during the one day time. During the 12hr day time the sunlight is not uniform it also differ according to your location in the we can assume 4 hours of effective sunlight which will generate the rated power. Total Wp of pv panel capacity needed 475Wh /4 118.75. By taking some margin you can choose a 120 Watt,12v solar panel. Here you should not confuse with the 12V. I wrote 12V as it is suitable for charging the 12V t actually the solar panel voltage is around 17V or more. Step 3: battery selection, the out put from the solar panel is dc is power is generated during the day time if you want to run a dc load during day time then it seems to be very t doing this is not a good. if you want to run the appliances during night then it is impossible.
Example : cfl 11W x 5. Fan 50 W x 3hr 150. Tv 80W x 2hr, total Watt hour, considering 30 energy lost in the system. So total Watt hour per day 365.3 474.5 Wh which can be round off to 475. Now the load revelation calculation is e next thing is to choose the right components to match with your load requirement. If you are not interested to doing the above maths then use a load calculator for this ere are huge number of load calculator available in the internet. I am attaching a such link. Off Grid load Calculator. Step 2: solar panel selection, the solar Panel converts the sunlight into electricity as direct current (DC).These are typically categorized as mono crystalline or poly crystalline.
M: The Universe
Step 1: calculate your load, before choosing the components you have to calculate what is your load, how much time it will run etc. If any one know basic maths then It is very simple to calculate. 1.Decide what appliances (light,fan, tv etc ) you want to run and how much time (hour). See the specification chart in your appliances for power rating. Lculate the, watt hour which is equal to product of power rating of your appliances and time ( hr) of run. Example : Lets you want to run a 11w cfl for 5hour from solar panel, then the watt hour is equal. Watt hour 11W x 5 hr 55 lculate the total Watt hour : Just like a cfl calculate the watt hour for all the appliances and add them together.owl