The converse is also true. Attributing failure to a lack of ability reduces self-confidence and reduces the students summoning of intellectual and emotional abilities to the next challenging tasks; attribution theory also explains why such students will be unwilling to seek help from tutors and other support services: they believe. In addition to blaming failure on external causes, underachievers often self-handicap themselves by deliberately putting little effort into an academic task; they thereby protect themselves from attributing their failure to a painful lack of ability by attributing their failure to lack of effort (Stage. Metacognition and At-Risk Students The last two decades have seen a great deal of research directed towards improving the academic success of at-risk students. As McKeachie (1988) explains, the problems are Students enter the higher levels of education with. Strategies that handicap them in achieving success.
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For example, students in an argument and persuasion class might have to check their notes on how to analyze persuasive strategies because they have not internalized the procedure. Problems business with Abilities Lacking the level of needed mental abilities. For example, students are asked to think abstractly about general concepts and issues, but they can only think concretely about specific situations. A good way to discover what kind of errors students are making in their thinking processes is to get them to unpack their thinking, to tell you step by step how they are going about the task. By listening to how they are doing the cognitive task, an instructor can detect where the student is going wrong. Asking students to describe their thinking processes also develops their metacognitive abilities—a very necessary skill to improve thinking. Metacognition and Motivation Metacognition affects motivation because it affects attribution and self-efficacy. When students get results on tests and grades on assignments (especially unexpected results such as failures they perform a mental causal search to explain to themselves why the results happened. When they achieve good results, students tend to attribute the result to two internal factors: their own ability and effort. When they fail, they might attribute the cause to these same internal factors or they might, in a self-protective rationalization, distance themselves from a sense of personal failure by blaming external causes, such as an overly difficult task, an instructors perverse testing habits, or bad. This tendency to attribute success to ability and effort promotes future success because it develops confidence in ones ability to solve future unfamiliar and challenging tasks.
For example, some math students will jump right to write what they think is the final calculation to get the desired answer. Errors in goal seeking Misrepresenting the task. For example, students in a speech communication class instead of doing the assigned task of analyzing and classifying group communication strategies used in their group discussions will just write a narrative of who said what. Not understanding the criteria to apply. For example, when asked to evaluate the support provided for the major claim of an article, students will explain why they liked the article rather than apply appropriate evaluative criteria. Problems with Cognitive load too many subskills necessary to do a task. For example, some students might have not yet learned how to carry out all the steps in a complex nursing procedure. Not enough automatic, internalized subskills.
Metacognition includes goal setting, monitoring, self-assessing, and regulating during thinking and writing processes; that is, when theyre studying and doing homework. An essential component of metacognition is employing study strategies to reach a goal, self-assessing ones effectiveness in proposal reaching that goal, and then self-regulating in response to the self-assessment. Monitoring Problems with learning, when students monitor their learning, they can become aware of potential problems. Nickerson, perkins, and Smith (1985) in The teaching of Thinking have categorized several types of problems with learning. Problems with Process; making errors in encoding, operations, and goals: rors in Encoding Missing important data or not separating relevant from irrelevant data. For example, some literature students will base their interpretation of a poem on just the first stanza. Rors in Operations failing to select the right subskills to apply. For example, when proofreading, some students will just read to see if it sounds right, rather than making separatepasses that check for fragments, subject-verb misagreement, and other errors they have learned from experience they are likely to make. Failing to divide a task into subparts.
For example, reading for information acquisition wont work in a literature course and wont work if students are supposed to critically evaluate an article. But students who have learned only the strategy of reading to pass a quiz on the information will not go beyond this strategy. Study strategies dont necessarily transfer into other domains. Students need to know they have choices about which strategies to employ in different contexts. And students who learn study skills in one course need to apply study strategies in other contexts than where they first learned. Students need to monitor their application of study strategies. Metacognitive awareness of their learning processes is as important as their monitoring of their learning of the course content.
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For example, students need essay to recognize that an exam word problem requires the calculation of momentum as part of its solution. This notion of three kinds of knowledge applies to learning strategies as well as course content. When they study, students need the declarative knowledge that (1) all reading assignments are not alike; for example, that a history textbook chapter with factual information differs from a primary historical document, which is different from an article interpreting or analyzing that document. They need to know that stories and novels differ from arguments. Furthermore they need to know that there are different kinds of note taking strategies useful for annotating these different types of texts.
And (2) students need to know how to actually write different kinds of notes (procedural knowledge and (3) they need to know when to apply these kinds of notes when they study (conditional knowledge). Knowledge of study strategies is among the kinds of metacognitive knowledge, and it too requires awareness of all three kinds of knowledge. Metacognition and Study Strategies, research shows that explicitly teaching study strategies in content courses improves learning. (Commander wallpaper valeri-gold, 2001; Ramp guffey, 1999; Chiang, 1998; El-Hindi, 1997; McKeachie, 1988). Research also shows that few instructors explicitly teach study strategies; they seem to assume that students have already learned them in high school—but they havent. Rote memorization is the usual learning strategy—and often the only strategy—employed by high school students when they go to college (Nist, 1993). Study strategies are diverse and dont work in every context.
Five generalizations from a review of the literature of Study Strategies. What Instructors Can do to help Students me sample metacognitive strategies rategies for Instructors to Use in teaching Textbook Reading rategies for Students to Use for Textbook Reading mple reflective topics for Self-Monitoring and Self-Assessment. Introduction, in general, metacognition is thinking about thinking. More specifically, taylor (1999) defines metacognition as an appreciation of what one already knows, together with a correct apprehension of the learning task and what knowledge and skills it requires, combined with the agility to make correct inferences about how to apply ones strategic knowledge. The more students are aware of their thinking processes as they learn, the more they can control such matters as goals, dispositions, and attention. If students are aware of how committed (or uncommitted) they are to reaching goals, of how strong (or weak) is their disposition to persist, and of how focused (or wandering) is their attention to a thinking or writing task, they can regulate their commitment, disposition.
For example, if students were aware of a lack of commitment to writing a long research assignment, noticed that they were procrastinating, and were aware that they were distracted by more appealing ways to spend their time, they could then take action to get started. But until they are aware of their procrastination and take control by making a plan for doing the assignment, they will blissfully continue to neglect the assignment. To increase their metacognitive abilities, students need to possess and be aware of three kinds of content knowledge: declarative, procedural, and conditional. Declarative knowledge is the factual information that one knows; it can be declared—spoken or written. An example is knowing the formula for calculating momentum in a physics class (momentum mass times velocity). Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to do something, of how to perform the steps in a process; for example, knowing the mass of an object and its rate of speed and how to do the calculation. Conditional knowledge is knowledge about when to use a procedure, skill, or strategy and when not to use it; why a procedure works and under what conditions; and why one procedure is better than another.
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Metacognition, metacognition: Study Strategies, monitoring, and Motivation. By william peirce 2003, a greatly expanded text version of a workshop presented november 17, 2004, at Prince george's Community college. The main points mini of the presentation are: Instructors should explicitly teach the reading, note-taking, and study strategies that will be effective in their courses. Instructors should teach students how to monitor and self-assess their use of study strategies. Metacognition and Three types of Knowledge. Metacognition and Study Strategies,. Monitoring Problems with learning,. Metacognition and At-Risk Students, vii.
Use encouraging words and phrases, such as, you almost have it, or That was so close! Negative responses will probably turn them off from asking anyone for help in the future; including from a teacher, so dont let that happen. Homework is always seen as drudgery to most children. If you keep these tips in mind and use as many as possible for your child, homework could become a more do-able thing for them to include within their day. Source: Free articles from m, being a mom is extremely rewarding, but its challenging. Get the help you need. Its your place for instant hand downloadable help for moms, day or night.
the many excuses you will receive, in the beginning, about why they cant complete their homework. Know what their homework is- This will be a hard one for some parents as some children wont be as willing to offer up that information to them. Try as much as you can to find out what it is and ask to see their work when their done, to ensure each assignment is completed. Make your homework assistance a positive one- this is important. Each time they ask you or someone else for help, it needs to always be a positive experience. Never let the child feel as if theyre dumb because they came up with the wrong answer.
Support their time- if you have other children or adults in the home while homework time is going on, make sure that everyone else knows and understands that the child needs quiet and should have no interruptions. Keep others away from the space youve provided for their homework purposes. Your child needs to supermarket know that you will support their need to focus on their work. Remain nearby- even though they need quiet time with no distractions, you will still need to be nearby in case they run into some problems and need some help. Dont let them wander through the house looking for you when they want help as there can be too many distractions along the way. Let them know periodically that you, or someone else, is nearby if they have any questions. Stick to a schedule- homework time should be at the same time every day that they have. Of course, life happens and this doesnt always work out the way you want it to, but try to keep homework time at about the same time each day.
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Family Articles, september 4, 2008, homework battles are never hard to find when school is in season. . Here are some helpful tips for parents to make homework time less of a battle and more of a joy. School is back in session, which means your child is back in the homework grind. . Homework is an essential part to broadening your childs educational experience to prepare them for their life, but what good does it do when most children arent motivated to get it done. Their lack of motivation can presentation cause problems for them in school and beyond. While your child may still see homework as an unpleasant chore, there are some things you can do to help make this experience a more acceptable one for them. Heres some ways you can help them make the most of their homework time: give them space- dedicate an area in your home for homework purposes. It should be a spot that is as quiet as possible without the distractions of television, radio, etc. Your child needs to be able to focus on the task at hand, so eliminating as many distractions as possible will be necessary.