Supreme court rules breaches of land grants don't automatically return land to government (Schulenberg. Harriman, 21 Wallace 44). 1876 In Munn. 114 (1876 the. Supreme court approved state regulation of corporations with a public interest, in this case, the rates grain elevators charged to farmers, writing that "property clothed with the public interest, when used in a manner to make it of public consequence. Must submit to be controlled by the public for the common good." and ruled that the reasonableness of rates is a legislative, and not a judicial, question Justice Stephen.
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Np lost the. Paul pacific. Paul pacific goes into receivership and foreclosure. 1874 np defaulted on bond interest. 1874 Windom Senate committee on railroad abuses. 1874 Granger legislation in Iowa and Wisconsin. 1875 np, in receivership, is reorganized. A bondholders' committee purchases np at foreclosure sale, and the property is reconveyed to the company. By court order, the grant land, being mostly unpatented, was not sold, as professional was required in the may 31, review 1870 resolution amending the grant (U.S. Bur Corps, 1913-14, part 1,.235).
Though earlier that summer, there had been a deadly battle between striking steel workers and Pinkerton agents hired by Frick to secure carnegie's Homestead, pennsylvania steel plant. See leon Wolff, lockout: The Story of the homestead Strike of 1892 and. House of Representatives, Employment of Pinkerton Detectives, 52d Cong., 2d Sess., report. 1873 np completes Duluth to bismarck. 1873 np completes Kalama to tacoma. 1873 Panic of 1873, precipitated by the failure of np bonds being sold roles by jay cooke. Construction of the np stopped.
The Grangers and the populist movement: by 1875, there were 800,000 members in friend 20,000 local Granges (John. Stover, American railroads,. During the 1877 depression, the first Farmers Alliance was formed in Texas; unlike the more conservative grangers, the Alliances created cooperatives and other alternatives to escape crop-liens, indebtedness, and corporate domination of their economy. By 1886, there were 100,000 farmers in 2,000 Alliances. By 1887, 200,000 farmers had formed 3,000 Alliances; by 1889, there were 400,000 members in the national Farmers Alliance that sought political as well as economic reforms. But by 1896, the populists had been "enticed" into the democratic party, and even though William Jennings Bryan was being funded by Anaconda copper, hearst, and other corporations, big business and the press supported McKinley, in the first big-money election; Bryan received.5 million votes. 370-377; and Zinn, a people's History of the United States,. In 1892, with conservative grover Cleveland's entry to the White house, henry Clay frick wrote to his boss Andrew Carnegie "I cannot see that our interests are going to be affected one way or the other by the change in administration." (Carl Degler, The Age.
Holmes assigned a deputy to Stevens, and gave np blank subpoenas. Eventually np was selling federal timber; for 100 a 50 cents per thousand board feet, a person could cut federal timber without interference from Stevens. General land Office finally stepped in in June 1873, and accused Stevens of stealing from the government and the railroad. Stevens was not charged, but np fired him. See ficken, 1987,.40,44-47. See also Steen, 1969 (p.46-47) on np fraud. 1873, farmers' Anti-monopoly convention in Des moines stated that "all corporations are subject to legislative control; such control should be at all times so used as to prevent moneyed corporations from becoming engines of oppression" (Grossman and Adams, taking Care of Business,. 18, citing Martin, history of the Grange movement,.
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1870s In 1870, george Armstrong Custer fought southern Plains Indians for resisting railroads; in 1873 the war Dept., at np's request, served as protection for railroad survey party in Yellowstone (Brown, 1977,. 1870 np land grant modified by joint Resolution 67 of may 31, 1870 (16 Stat. 378 granting additional lands and allowing the sale of mortgage bonds; in jay cooke sold 80 million worth of them. By 1872 the np owed cooke.5 million; the next year cooke collapsed. 1870 There are 53,000 miles of railroad in the. 1870 np construction began at Thomsons Junction (Duluth) mn and Kalama,. 1870 St paul essays pacific's First division purchased.
1871 St paul pacific completes 283 miles. 1871 np bonds in London; see northern Pacific, 1871 in Bibliography. 1871 np and the. Fight timber poaching on federal lands. Np paid federal timber agent Tuttle to help arrest poachers - those who cut federal timber illegally - because it feared it would help lose its odd-numbered checkerboards as well. Np attorney hazard Stevens, the son of the territorial governor, also seized logs cut on federal land - some three million board feet, or 20 percent of the cut.
1864 Pacific railroad Act doubled the cp and up land grants from 10 to 20 miles of alternating sections for each mile of road built, and arranged for earlier release of federal loans of 32,000 to 48,000 per mile of road (Time-life, the railroaders,. 1864 Lincoln signs Northern Pacific land grant (July 2, 1864,. 1865 southern Pacific chartered to build from San Francisco to los Angeles and San diego. Sp acquired by central Pacific's Big four in 1868. 1866 np construction deadline extended (may 7, 1866 time extension to july 4, 1978). The Union Pacific's Credit Mobilier construction company, the stock of which had been distributed among Congressmen where it would do us the most good according.
Oakes Ames paid its first dividend - of one hundred percent. In the ensuing scandal, many politicans were implicated - including James Garfield, Schuyler Colfax, and others who were also involved in the northern Pacific railroad (Stewart Holbrook, the Story of the American railroads,. Np franchise given to eastern financiers. 1868 np construction deadline extended (July 1, 1868 time extension to july 4, 1879). 1868 Central Pacific railroad's big four (Huntington, Stanford, Crocker, hopkins) acquired the southern Pacific railroad. In 1885, the cp became the. Sp's original charter called or a railroad from San francisco to southern California to Arizona, but the sp pushed to new Orleans by 1883 (Time-life, the railroaders,. 1869 Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads - the first transcontinental - completed with the golden spike in Utah. Survey party returns preliminary report which estimates construction will cost 85 million, while value of land grants will be four times greater.
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Burch,., Elites in American History, holmes meier, 1980,. 1862 Lincoln signed the first Pacific railway bill. The Union Pacific-Central Pacific land grant (12 Stat. 120, july 1, 1862 amended in 1864 (13 Stat. 216, july 2, 1864 resulted in the Credit Mobilier scandal. The Union Pacific got more than eleven million estate acres and 27 million in bonds; the central Pacific got eight million acres and 24 presentation million in bonds. Paul pacific incorporated (Minnesota state grants in 18 gave ten sections per mile of track, for a total of 3,256,790 acres).
1860 There are 30,000 miles of railroad in the. 1860 Presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln spent 100,000, twice as much as opponent Stephen douglas (Charles Lewis and the center for Public Integrity, the buying of the President, avon books, 1996,. 17, citing louise overacker, money in Elections, macmillan, 1932,. Lincoln had been a lawyer for railroads, including the Illinois Central, which had received a land grant with douglas' support. In 1860, lincoln and his friend Norman. Judd, attorney for the rock Island railroad, arranged to give discount rates to anyone who woul d come to Chicago for the republican national convention (Lewis,. 17, citing Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The Prairire years,. Railroad officials joined Lincoln's administration, and Lincoln granted more land to railroads than any other president (Lewis,. 17, citing Philip.
to phony construction. Renamed the Great Northern. For a history of stock manipulation and bribery of the minnesota legislature by russell Sage and James Hill, see gustavus myers, 1936. For grants, see rae (1952) and Gates (1968,. For grants and construction, see yenne (1991,.56). See also this chronology's 18, and 1889 entries.
1850 Chicago, burlington quincy, "the Granger road was formed with.8 million acre grant. Between 18, burlington sold two million acres to 20,000 people in Missouri, iowa, and Nebraska. 1854 Minnesota northwest railroad charter and grant. Fraud and bribery caused the dates grant to be cancelled; the railroad was renamed Minnesota pacific, then the St paul pacific, and eventually the Great Northern. See this chronology's 1857, 1862, 1879, and 1885 entries. 1857 Minnesota northwest rechartered Minnesota pacific. Granted five million acres and several million dollars in Minnesota state bonds. Built only 10 miles of railroad. Insolvency led to foreclosure in 1860.
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Railroad Land business Grant Chronology by george Draffan. Railroads clearcuts, chronology of the northern Pacific related Land Grant railroads, july 24, 2001 version compiled by george Draffan, Endgame. References cited correspond to the author's. Bibliography on railroad Land Grants, history isn't dead; it's not even past. william faulkner, nothing is so admirable in politics as a short memory. john Kenneth Galbraith. The land, the earth God gave man for his home, sustenance, and support, should never be the possession of any man, corporation, society, or unfriendly government, any more than the air or water." - abraham Lincoln, us president during the largest of the railroad land. Senator Stephen douglas arranges a checkerboard compromise to create the first federal land grant railroad, the Illinois Central. Illinois Central railroad attorney abraham Lincoln will soon challenge Stephen douglas for political office, and, with the Illinois Central's help, will eventually be elected president of the United States, from which office he will sign the largest of the railroad land grants into law.