This study explored whether and how teachers mathematical knowledge for teaching contributes to gains in students mathematics achievement. Teachers mathematical knowledge was significantly related to student achievement gains in both first and third grades after controlling for key student- and teacher-level covariates. Ingersoll,., and Strong,. The Impact of Induction and Mentoring Programs for Beginning teachers: a critical review of the research. Review of Education Research, 81 (2 201-233. This review critically examines 15 published studies on the effects of teacher induction and mentoring programs for new teachers. The authors conclude that, overall, the evidence supports the claim that teacher induction and mentorship programs in particular have positive impacts, including improved teacher satisfaction, retention, and student achievement. Jaquith,., mindich,., wei,.
Annotated, bibliography, example and Useful Tips for Writing
Differential Effects of Three professional development Models on teacher Knowledge and Student Achievement in poetry Elementary Science Abstract. Journal of Research in Science teaching, 49 (3 333362. A randomized experiment implemented in six states with over 270 elementary teachers and 7,000 students compared three related but systematically varied teacher interventions - taught through three courses, teaching Cases, looking at Student Work, and Metacognitive analysis - and no-treatment controls. The three courses contained identical science content components but differed in the ways they incorporated analysis of learner thinking and of teaching. Teacher courses were led by trained staff developers. Teaching Cases and looking at Student Work courses improved the accuracy and completeness of students' written justifications of test answers, and only teaching Cases had sustained effects on teachers' written justifications. Findings suggest investing in professional development that integrates content learning with analysis of student learning and teaching rather than advanced content or teacher metacognition alone. C., rowan,., and Ball,. Effects of teachers Mathematical Knowledge for teaching on Student Achievement (PDF). American Educational Research journal, 42 (2 371-406.
Replacing the bottom 5 percent to 8 percent of teachers with average teachers could move the United States near the top of international math and science rankings with a present value of 100 trillion. A., and rivkin,. The distribution of teacher quality and Implications for Policy. Annual review friend of Economics, 4, 131-157. Existing research consistently shows large variations in teacher effectiveness, much of which is within schools as opposed to between schools. The authors discuss the complexity of factors that contribute to the gains of students on various achievement tests. R., wong,., Shinohara,., and Miratrix,.
While the number of contact hours ranged widely, from five to over 100 hours depending on the study, those initiatives that showed positive effects included 30 or more contact hours. It thus seems clear that effective margaret professional development requires considerable time, and that time must be well organized, carefully structured, purposefully directed, and focused on content or pedagogy or both (Citing: Birman., 2000; Garet., 2001; Guskey, 1999). The Economic Value of Higher teacher quality (PDF). Economics of Education review, 30, 466-479. This article reviews what is known about the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement and combines information about teacher effectiveness with the economic impact of higher achievement. A teacher one standard deviation above the mean effectiveness annually generates marginal gains of over 400,000 in future student earnings, assuming a class size of 20, and proportionately higher gains with larger class sizes. However, for ineffective teachers, increased class size exacerbates the negative effect on students future earnings.literature
Seeing causal connections fosters acquisition of key teaching skills and knowledge, such as identifying student needs, formulating instructional plans, and using evidence to refine instruction. These outcomes are more likely when teams are teaching similar content, led by a trained peer-facilitator, using an inquiry-focused protocol, and have stable settings in which to engage in continuous improvement. R., and yoon,. What Works in Professional development? (PDF) Phi delta kappan, 90 (7 495-500. A research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they. In this analysis, time was found to be a crucial factor to success.
Format of annotated bibliography
The report also reviews the evidence discouraging the use of value-added modeling in teacher evaluation practices. Darling-Hammond,., wei,. C., Andree,., richardson,., and Orphanos,. Professional learning in the learning Profession: a status Report on teacher development in the United States and Abroad (PDF). Stanford, ca: National Staff development council and the School Redesign Network at Stanford University. This report examines what research has revealed about professional learning that improves teachers practice and student learning. It describes the relative availability of such opportunities in the United States as well as in high-achieving nations around the world, which have been making substantial and sustained investments in professional learning for teachers over philadelphia the last two decades.
Gallimore,., Ermeling,. M., and Goldenberg,. Moving the learning of teaching Closer to Practice: teacher Education Implications of School-Based Inquiry teams (PDF). A five-year prospective, quasi-experimental investigation demonstrated that grade-level teams in nine title 1 schools using an inquiry-focused protocol to solve instructional problems significantly increased achievement. Teachers applying the inquiry protocol shifted attribution of improved student performance to their teaching rather than external causes. This shift was achieved by focusing on an academic problem long enough to develop an instructional solution.
Teachers engaged in extensive discussions about how to facilitate and evaluate classroom math discussions. The participants professional community collaboratively and substantively examined each other's practices. Preparing for National board certification can facilitate teacher learning and the development of professional teacher communities. S., and Schneider,. Trust in Schools: a core resource for School Improvement. Creating Caring Schools, 60 (6 40-45.
Important consequences play out in the day-to-day social exchanges within a school community. Recent research shows that social trust among teachers, parents, and school leaders improves much of the routine work of schools and is a key resource for reform. The authors conducted almost a decade of intensive case-study research and longitudinal statistical analyses from more than 400 Chicago elementary schools. They spent approximately four years in 12 school communities observing school meetings and events; conducting interviews and focus groups with principals, teachers, parents, and community leaders; observing classroom instruction; and talking to teachers about the progress and problems in their reform efforts. Differences between two of these cases help illustrate how the dynamics of relational trust across a school community influence its reform efforts. Creating a comprehensive system for evaluating and Supporting Effective teaching (PDF). Stanford, ca: Stanford Center for Opportunity policy in Education. This report identifies five key features of effective teacher evaluation systems that also support effective teaching: (1) start with standards, (2) create performance-based assessments, (3) build a standards-based system of local evaluation, (4) create structures to support high-quality, fair, and effective evaluation, and (5) create.
Writing an, annotated, bibliography
This article maps the terrain of resumes research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional-development programs and their impact on teacher learning. It then suggests some important directions and strategies for extending our knowledge into new territory of questions not yet explored. Brantlinger,., Sherin,. G., and Linsenmeier,. Discussing Discussion: a video club in the service of Math teachers National board Preparation Abstract. Teachers and teaching: Theory and Practice, 17 (1 5-33. The paper examines a group of secondary mathematics teachers who met 16 times to discuss video excerpts of their teaching with the explicit purpose of assisting with the preparation of video for submission to the national board for Professional teaching Standards.
K., and de las Alas,. Effects of teacher Professional development on gains in Student Achievement: How Meta-Analysis Provides Scientific evidence Useful to Education leaders (PDF). This meta-analysis, conducted by the council of Chief State School Officers (ccsso) and funded by a national Science foundation grant, aims to provide k-12 education decision makers at the state and local levels tom with scientifically based evidence about the effects of teacher professional development. Across studies, teacher professional development in mathematics showed significant positive effects on student learning. The results also confirmed the positive relationship of key characteristics of professional-development design identified in previous studies over the past decade to student outcomes: sustained, active teacher learning that is coherently aligned with the schools organization. The study urges education leaders to make their professional-development decisions based on initiatives showing evidence of positive effects on student achievement. Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain (PDF). Educational Researcher, 33 (8 3-15. Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools.
Caring leaders and positive student-teacher relationships that inspired teachers were also reported to promote resilience. K., de las Alas,., and Smith,. Does teacher Professional development have effects on teaching and learning?: evaluation Findings from Programs in 14 States (PDF). Washington, dc: council of Chief State School Officers. The report reviews 41 evaluation studies from a sample of 25 professional-development initiatives for teachers of math and science conducted across the United States from 20Only one-third of the programs had well-developed evaluations that produced measurable effects on student achievement or change in instructional practices. Significant effects of professional-development programs were found when programs focused on content knowledge in the math and science subject areas plus pedagogical training in teaching the subject matter. In addition, measuring change in teaching practices in the classroom is a promising outcome worthy of further use and expansion to other professional development studies.
This report summarizes highly effective systems to develop and support teachers and leaders in Finland, Ontario, and Singapore and describes how each system carries them out. Lessons learned from these systems include: (1) make teaching london an attractive profession, (2) invest in continual learning, and (3) recruit and develop high-quality leadership. Beltman,., mansfield,. F., and Price,. Thriving Not Just Surviving: a review of Research on teacher Resilience (PDF). Educational Research review, 6 (3 185-207. This paper reviews recent empirical studies related to the resilience of early career teachers.
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C., Gregory,., mikami,. Y., and Lun,. An Interaction-Based Approach to Enhancing Secondary School Instruction and Student Achievement Abstract. MyteachingPartner-Secondary is a web-mediated professional-development system focused on improving teacher-student interactions in the classroom. Based on a randomized controlled trial with 78 secondary school teachers and 2,237 students, mtp-s improved student achievement test scores in the year following its completion, equivalent to moving the average student from the 50th to the 59th percentile. Gains appeared to be mediated by database changes in teacher-student interaction qualities targeted by the intervention. Alliance for Excellent Education (2011). Teacher and School leader Effectiveness: Lessons learned from High-Performing Systems (PDF).