He was an unabashed lyricist, a modern cavalier love poet. But alongside his lyrical celebrations of nature, love, and the imagination are his satirical denouncements of tawdry, defiling, flat-footed, urban and political life—open terrain for invective and verbal inventiveness. This satirical aspect to cummings work drew both praise and criticism. His attacks on the mass mind, conventional patterns of thought, and societys restrictions on free expression, were born of his strong commitment to the individual. In the nonlectures he delivered at Harvard University cummings explained his position: so far as i am concerned, poetry and every other art was, is, and forever will be strictly and distinctly a question of individuality. As Penberthy noted, cummings consistent attitude in all of his work was condemning mankind while idealizing the individual. Cummings lifelong belief, bernard dekle stated in Profiles of Modern American Authors, was a simple faith in the miracle of mans individuality.
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Norman Friedman explained in his. Cummings: The Growth of a writer that Cummings the innovations are best understood as various ways of stripping the film of familiarity from language in order to strip the film of familiarity from the world. Transform the word, he seems to have felt, and you are on the way to transforming the world. Other critics focused on the subjects of Cummings poetry. Though his poetic language was uniquely his own, cummings poems were unusual because they unabashedly focused on such traditional and somewhat passé poetic themes as love, childhood, and flowers. What Cummings did with such subjects, according to Stephen. Whicher in Twelve american poets, was, by verbal ingenuity, without the irony with which another modern poet would treat such a topic, create a sophisticated modern facsimile of the naive lyricism of Campion or Blake. This resulted in what Whicher termed the renewal of the cliché. Penberthy detected in Cummings a nineteenth-century romantic reverence for natural order over man-made order, for intuition and imagination over routine-grounded perception. His exalted vision of life and love is served well by his linguistic agility.
Some devices, such as the use of with lowercase letters at the beginnings of lines. Allow a kind of distortion that often re-enforces that of the syntax. All these devices have the effect of jarring the reader, of forcing him to examine experience with fresh eyes. Hayakawa also remarked on this quality in Cummings poetry. No modern poet to my knowledge, hayakawa wrote in poetry, has such a clear, childlike perception. Cummings—a way of coming smack against things with unaffected delight and wonder. Results in breath-takingly clean vision.
The modern poets: a critical Introduction: The chief effect of presentation Cummings jugglery with syntax, grammar, and diction was to blow open otherwise trite and bathetic motifs through a dynamic rediscovery of the energies sealed up in conventional usage. He succeeded masterfully in splitting the atom of the cute commonplace. Blackmur wrote in The double Agent: Essays in Craft and Elucidation, has a fine talent for using familiar, even almost dead words, in such a context as to make them suddenly impervious to every ordinary sense; they become unable to speak, but with a great. Dumas wrote in her. Cummings: a remembrance of Miracles that more important than the specific devices used by cummings is the use to which he puts the devices. That is a complex matter; irregular spacing. Allows both amplification and retardation. Further, spacing of key words summary allows puns which would otherwise be impossible.
Xli poems for, nation, mark van Doren defined Cummings as a poet with a richly sensuous mind; his verse is distinguished by fluidity and weight; he is equipped to range lustily and long among the major passions. At the end of 1925. Dial magazine chose cummings for their annual award of 2,000, a sum equalling a full years income for the writer. The following year a new collection, Is 5, was published, for which Cummings wrote an introduction meant to explain his approach to poetry. In the introduction he argued forcefully for poetry as a process rather than a product. It was with these collections of the 1920s that Cummings established his reputation as an avant-garde poet conducting daring experiments with language. Speaking of these language experiments,.
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John Dos Passos, in a review of the book for. Dial, claimed that in a style infinitely swift and crisply flexible, an individual not ashamed of his loves and hates, great or trivial, has expressed a bit of the underside of History with indelible vividness. Writing of the book in 1938, john peale bishop claimed in the. Southern review: The Enormous room has the effect of making all but a very few comparable books that came out of the war look shoddy and worn. Cummings first collection of poems, tulips weaknesses and Chimneys, appeared in 1923. His eccentric use of grammar and punctuation are evident in the volume, though many of the poems are written in conventional language.
Like the imagery, the verse forms, the subject matter, and the thought, is sometimes good, sometimes bad, wrote robert. But the book is so obviously the work of a talented young man who is striking off in new directions, groping for original and yet precise expression, experimenting in public, that it seems uncharitable to dwell too long on its shortcomings. The original manuscript for, tulips and Chimneys was cut down by the publisher. These deleted poems were published in 1925 as, so titled because cummings wanted the original book to be titled. Tulips chimneys but was overruled. Another collection quickly followed: xli poems, also in 1925. In a review.
In December of 1919 Elaine gave birth to cummings daughter, nancy, and Thayer gave the child his name. Cummings was not to marry Elaine until 1924, after she and Thayer divorced. He adopted Nancy at this time; she was not to know that Cummings was her real father until 1948. This first marriage did not last long. Two months after their wedding, Elaine left for Europe to settle her late sisters estate.
She met another man during the Atlantic crossing and fell in love with him. She divorced Cummings in 1925. The early 1920s were an extremely productive time for Cummings. In 1922 he published his first book, the Enormous room, a fictionalized account of his French captivity. Critical reaction was overwhelmingly positive, although Cummings account of his imprisonment was oddly cheerful in tone and freewheeling in style. He depicted his internment camp stay as a period of inner growth. Twentieth Century literature, the Enormous room s emphasis is upon what the initiate has learned from his journey. In this instance, the maimed hero can never again regard the outer world (i.e., civilization) without irony. But the spiritual lesson he learned from his sojourn with a community of brothers will be repeated in his subsequent writings both as an ironical dismissal of the values of his contemporary world, and as a sensitive, almost mystical celebration of the quality of Christian.
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To relieve the boredom of their assignment, they inserted veiled and provocative comments into their letters back home, trying to outwit and baffle the French censors. They also befriended soldiers in nearby units. Such activities led in September of 1917 to their being held on suspicion of treason and sent to an internment camp in Normandy for questioning. Cummings and Brown were housed in a large, one-room holding area along with other suspicious foreigners. Only outraged protests listing from his father finally secured Cummings release in December of 1917; Brown was not released until April of the following year. In July 1918, cummings was drafted into the. Army and spent some six months at a training camp in Massachusetts. Upon leaving the army in January of 1919, cummings resumed his affair with Elaine Thayer, the wife of his friend Schofield writings Thayer. Thayer knew and approved of the relationship.
He began to write avant-garde poems in which conventional punctuation and syntax were ignored in favor of a dynamic use of language. Cummings also experimented with poems as visual objects on the page. These early efforts were included in Eight Harvard poets, a collection of poems by members of the harvard poetry society. After graduating from Harvard, cummings spent a month working for a mail order book dealer. He left the job because of the tedium. In April of 1917, with the first World War raging in Europe and the United States just becoming involved, he essays volunteered for the norton-Harjes Ambulance service in France. Ambulance work was a popular choice with those who, like cummings, considered themselves to be pacifists. He was soon stationed on the French-German border with fellow American William Slater Brown, and the two young men became fast friends.
position in 20th-century poetry. Modern American poetry: Essays in Criticism called him one of the greatest lyric poets in our language. Stanley edgar Hyman wrote. Standards: a chronicle of books for Our Time : Cummings has written at least a dozen poems that seem to me matchless. Three are among the great love poems of our time or any time. Malcolm Cowley admitted in the, yale review that Cummings suffers from comparison with those poets who built on a larger scale—Eliot, aiken, Crane, auden among others—but still he is unsurpassed in his special field, one of the masters. Cummings decided to become a poet when he was still a child. Between the ages of eight and twenty-two, he wrote a poem a day, exploring many traditional poetic forms. By the time he was in Harvard in 1916, modern poetry had caught his interest.
In the interim, having been a bridesmaid a full dozen times prior to becoming a bride, she sold "Wedding Wonders on the origin of wedding customs still in practice today, to Great. Following the publication writings of a butler's Life, kimberly turned to her first love-writing fiction. She has published two psychological suspense novels, "Blood Exposure" and "Net Stalker and one of women's fiction, "Choice all of which deal with the corrosive secrets that can destroy a family. Kimberly lives on the east End of Long Island, ny, where she and her husband own and operate a bed and breakfast, for which she has published "a butler's Manor: The cookbook" of her most requested breakfast menus. As one of the most innovative poets of his time, edward Estlin (E.E.) Cummings experimented with poetic form and language to create a distinct personal style. A typical Cummings poem is spare and precise, employing a few key words eccentrically placed on the page. Some of these words were invented by cummings, often by combining two common words into a new synthesis. He also revised grammatical and linguistic rules to suit his own purposes, using such words as if, am, and because as nouns, for example, or assigning his own private meanings to words. Despite their nontraditional form, cummings poems came to be popular with many readers.
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Kimberly burton Allen was born and raised in diary Orange county, california. From an early age she was a prolific reader and writer, attracted to "what makes people tick." Though she received a bachelor of Arts in Psychology from California state University, fullerton, she found more practical applications for her creative talents in the field of advertising. From her start as a copywriter in advertising agencies, she eventually rose to avp of advertising and marketing for a small corporation in Irvine,. When her husband Christopher, a formally-trained British butler, was offered a position on the east coast in 1992, kimberly took the opportunity of relocation to pursue her dream of writing, beginning by making good on the half-joking promise she'd made to Chris shortly after their. In 1995, unagented, she sold "a butler's Life: Scenes From the Other Side of the silver Salver" to Frederic. Beil Publishing on the first round of submissions. The book was published in hardcover in 1997 and remains in print both in paperback and on Kindle.