The action or practice of plagiarizing; the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one's own, of the ideas, or the expression of ideas (literary, artistic, musical, mechanical, etc.) of another. A purloined idea, design, passage, or work. coed 1971:2192 according to the same dictionary, to purloin means:. To make away with, misappropriate, or take dishonestly; to steal, esp. Under circumstances which involve a breach of trust; to pilfer, filtch; And a purloiner is: a petty thief, a pilferer. coed 1971: 2365 hence the common definition of plagiarism is theft. All of this seems straightforward enough, but, experience teaches that both students, and many faculty, are very apt at excusing misdemeanors. The problem is that while some people are genuinely confused, many have a vested interest in muddying the waters because plagiarism can be a very profitable business that can lead to employment, promotion and regular salary increases all at the taxpayer's expense costing millions.
Is this a case of self-plagiarism?
Daily lobo, 5/3/2000; Kansas City Star, 02/15/2002; National Post, august 30, 2003. The practice of plagiarism is a form of academic high treason because it animal undermines the entire scholarly enterprise. How else do professors decide between a good and a bad student, evaluate a candidate for an academic position, or grant promotion to a fellow faculty member, if not on the basis of the belief that their written work is actually their own work? Therefore, plagiarism must be prevented at all levels of academic life from student papers to academic books. Nevertheless, care must be taken whenever one suspects a writer of plagiarism. It cannot be stressed enough that everyone makes a few mistakes and that genuine cases of similar use may occur. Consequently, what must be identified are patterns of behavior, repetitive practices, and clear indications of an attempt to deceive. The following paper attempts to identify plagiarism and show how plagiarists weave their web of deception. So what is plagiarism? Defining plagiarism is actually fairly easy. The compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary coed ) says that plagiarism is:.
Harvard in-text citation In a study published in April 2018, University of Arkansas researchers found that the issue of obesity in the us fuller was focused in pockets of so-called ecology of disadvantage, where social and demographic circumstances play a significant role. Almost 70 of the nations adult population were defined as overweight or obese at the time of the research (Whitby 2018). Chicago a in-text citation In a study published in April 2018, University of Arkansas researchers found that the issue of obesity in the us was focused in pockets of so-called ecology of disadvantage, where social and demographic circumstances play a significant role. Almost 70 of the nations adult population were defined as overweight or obese at the time of the research.1 Completing a plagiarism check After you have finished writing your dissertation, featuring perfect paraphrasing and correct citations, you could elect to run a plagiarism check. This comprehensive scan of your dissertation will show you if any of your text is too similar to that of the original sources. How serious a problem is academic plagiarism? Numerous studies show that plagiarism and other types of academic fraud is increasing among undergraduate students. For example in a recent article published by the center for Academic Integrity (cai professor Don McCabe claims that "On most campuses, 70 of students admit to some cheating" while "Internet plagiarism is a growing concern" because although only "10 of students admitted to engaging. To date no one has measured the extent of plagiarism among established academics although the indications are that between 10 and 15 of books and theses in the humanities and Social Sciences contain unacceptable levels of plagiarized material (.
How to cite when paraphrasing Once you have your perfectly paraphrased text, you need to ensure your in-text citations are correct. The most important factor is the referencing style, as each requires a different essays citation format. Examples of citations in the most common referencing styles Original" (with apa citation nearly 70 percent of the. Adult population meets the definition of overweight or obese, but a new study by University of Arkansas researchers shows the problem isnt randomly distributed across the country. Instead, obesity is concentrated in areas with social and demographic factors that create what researchers term an ecology of disadvantage. ( Whitby, 2018, para. 1 ) Paraphrased text: apa in-text citation In a study published in April 2018, University of Arkansas researchers found that the issue of obesity in the us was focused in pockets of so-called ecology of disadvantage, where social and demographic circumstances play a significant role. Almost 70 of the nations adult population were defined as overweight or obese at the time of the research (Whitby, 2018, para.
The active voice is when a sentence is led by the subject (the thing doing the action). When the object (the thing receiving the action) leads the sentence, that sentence is written in the passive voice. In this example, technology is the subject; the expectations of creators, regulators and users are the object. Therefore, the original" was written in the active voice, while the paraphrased example favours the passive voice. Break the information into separate sentences. Although paraphrasing will usually result in a word count roughly the same as an original", you may be able to play with the number of sentences to make the text different. In this example, one long sentence was broken into two. The opposite could also be the case,. If the original" is comprised of two sentences, you may be able to combine the information into one.
Self-Plagiarism q a - ithenticate
Lets start with a new example. Original": But the hearing was about more than Facebook; it exposed a critical turning point as the power, sophistication and potential exploitation of technology outpaces what users, regulators autobiography or even its creators expected or seem prepared to handle ( roose kang, 2018, para. Paraphrased version: The hearing made it apparent that the expectations of creators, regulators and users have been rapidly eclipsed by technology in general, not only facebook. Such technologies now extend beyond what these parties are able to manage, due to their immense influence, potential for exploitation and sophistication (Roose kang, 2018, para. Start your first sentence at a different point from that of the original source.
In the example, you can see that we started by introducing the context (the hearing) followed by the last part of the original sentence: the expectations of creators, regulators and users. In fact, the key pieces of information are mentioned in a completely different order. Use as many synonyms as possible While there are certain parts points of the original" that cannot be changed because there is no ideal synonym (e.g. The hearing; creators, regulators and users; technology other words or phrases have been replaced with synonyms. Exposed a critical turning point made it apparent, outpaces rapidly eclipsed, power immense influence. Change the sentence structure. If the sentence was originally in the active voice, change it to passive.
Since 2013, the percentage of children who play outside every day has decreased from 20 to just. There are several negative outcomes for children that have resulted from lack of outdoor play, including increasing problems with short-sightedness due to a preference for time on computers, shortages of Vitamin d, problems with weight, and limited development of social skills 2018). Here we have summarized the entire article from the example above, condensing it to just four sentences, the same way you might do with a study or relevant research during the writing of your dissertation. While paraphrasing and"ng are ideal if you wish to focus on one section of a research article, summarizing is a useful tool if you find the entire source relevant and interesting in the context of your own dissertation. Step-by-step guide to paraphrasing 1 read the passage several times so you fully understand the idea. 2 Note the key concepts if you need.
3 Write your version of the text without looking at the original (see the tools listed below if youre stuck at this stage). 4 read your own version of the paraphrased text against the original version, and note any phrases that remain too similar. 5 make minor adjustments as needed. You may not be able to change all phrases. For instance, in the above example, synonyms cannot be used to describe the national statistics office. 6 Note the source from where you took the idea, with all the information you will need to properly write the citation. Paraphrasing tips (with examples) These steps may seem straightforward enough to follow, but it can be hard to see where to begin when it comes to actually writing an idea in a different way than the published version. There are a few tricks you can apply to help you.
committee on Publication Ethics: cope
Note that when you read the paraphrased text, you become aware that the author understood the information guaranteed clearly and also took it from a reputable source. Paraphrasing versus summarizing, as a paraphrase is an explanation of a certain" from someone else, put into your own words, it will be approximately the same length as the sources original". When you completely or partially describe the outcome of a more substantial part of the research, it is called a summary. There is a distinct difference between paraphrasing and summarizing. However, in general (as is the case in many universities both are often referred to as paraphrasing. Example of summarized text Summary:Why summarize? An article published in April 2018 highlighted clear differences between generations of children in the netherlands, stating that 70 of the grandparents of the current generation spent more time outside than at home, compared to 10 today.
Examples of when to" and when to paraphrase. For this example, let us take a look at an article published on, one in three dutch children rarely or never play outside, where the author interviewed a source and elected to" them on some occasions, while paraphrasing other information. This report research shows the enormous changes between the generations, spokeswoman pauline van der loo told broadcaster nos 2018). This" was used early in the article, directly above the paraphrased text in the table row below. The author likely chose to" van der loo here, rather than paraphrase, as a way to show that they gathered the information from a primary source, to introduce the subject that van der loo would discuss, and to introduce the interviewee herself. The" also supports the key problem addressed by the article. While 70 of the current generation of childrens grandparents played more outside than at home, today just 10 of Dutch children are more likely to be outside than play indoors, van der loo said 2018). After the author introduced the subject of the interview and the interviewee with a", the next paragraph was paraphrased from the original source (i.e. They probably decided to paraphrase here to concisely convey the information, and also provide some variety and interest in the text for the reader.
up paraphrasing most of the important information you find, rather than using direct"s. It is wise to limit the number of direct"s in your dissertation, as heavy use can make it appear as though you do not properly understand the sources or are too lazy to write in your own words. quot;s also reduce the readability of your thesis. In general, you should prefer to paraphrase or summarize the authoritative sources and studies you find. quot;s should be limited to only when: you wish to use an exact definition. The original wording is so perfect you cannot hope to write it better. You need to provide evidence or support an argument.
This is due to three main reasons: Paraphrasing shows that you clearly understand the relevant sources. Rewriting text in your own words ensures you do not copy the research of others and plagiarize their work. Paraphrasing an idea means your own voice will remain dominant throughout the dissertation. Example of paraphrasing, we begin with a direct": The number of foreign and domestic tourists in the netherlands rose above 42 million plan in 2017, an increase of 9 and the sharpest growth rate since 2006, the national statistics office cbs reported on Wednesday (. Next, we rewrite the" in our own words. Example: paragraph of paraphrased text, the national statistics office, cbs, stated that the netherlands experienced dramatic growth in the number of tourists visiting in 2017. More than 42 million tourists travelled to the netherlands that year, representing a 9 increase the sharpest growth in 12 years 2018). Even though paraphrasing is very different, you must always cite the source for the idea just as you would with a direct".
Turnitin - is Recycling your Own Work Plagiarism?
Paraphrasing is the revelation most important tool for sharing the research of others as relevant to your own study. When you paraphrase, you state someone elses idea in your own words. Along with paraphrasing, there are two other ways to share the ideas of others in your dissertation:"ng and summarizing. Table of contents, what is paraphrasing? The definition of paraphrasing is when you state someone elses idea in your own words. The goal is to keep the same meaning as the original text without copying it word-for-word. In general, you will paraphrase more than you" throughout your dissertation.