64 A tea plant will grow into a tree of up to 16 m (52 ft) if left undisturbed, 52 but cultivated plants are generally pruned to waist height for ease of plucking. Also, the short plants bear more new shoots which provide new and tender leaves and increase the quality of the tea. 65 Only the top 12 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called 'flushes'. 66 A plant will grow a new flush every seven to 15 days during the growing season. Leaves that are slow in development tend to produce better-flavoured teas.
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60 Many high-quality tea plants are cultivated at elevations of up to 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above sea level. Though at these heights the literature plants grow more slowly, they acquire a better flavour. 61 Two principal varieties are used: Camellia sinensis var. Sinensis, which is used for most Chinese, formosan and Japanese teas, and. Assamica, used in pu-erh and most Indian teas (but not Darjeeling ). Within these botanical varieties, many strains and modern clonal varieties are known. Leaf size is the chief criterion for the classification of tea plants, with three primary classifications being, 62 Assam type, characterised by the largest leaves; China type, characterised by the smallest leaves; and Cambodian type, characterised by leaves of intermediate size. The cambod type tea (. Lasiocaly ) was originally considered a type of assam tea. However, later genetic work showed that it is a hybrid between Chinese small leaf tea and assam type tea. 63 Darjeeling tea also appears to be hybrids between Chinese small leaf tea and assam type tea.
The British had discovered that a different variety of tea was endemic to Assam and the father's northeast region of India and that it was used by the local Singpho people, and these were then grown instead of the Chinese tea plant and then were subsequently. Using the Chinese planting and cultivation techniques, the British launched a tea industry by offering land in Assam to any european who agreed to cultivate it for export. 49 tea was originally consumed only by anglicized Indians; however, it became widely popular in India in the 1950s because of a successful advertising campaign by the India tea board. 49 Cultivation and harvesting tea plantation workers in Sri lanka, 2009 Camellia sinensis is an evergreen plant that grows mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. 52 Some varieties can also tolerate marine climates and are cultivated as far north as Cornwall in England, 53 Perthshire in Scotland, 54 Washington state in the United States, 55 and Vancouver Island in Canada. 56 In the southern Hemisphere, tea is grown as far south as Hobart on the australian island of Tasmania 57 58 and waikato in New zealand. 59 tea plants are propagated from seed and cuttings; about 4 to 12 years are needed for a plant to bear seed and about three years before a new plant is ready for harvesting. 52 In addition to a zone 8 climate or warmer, tea plants require at least 127 cm (50 in) of rainfall a year and prefer acidic soils.
The price friend of tea in Europe fell steadily during the 19th century, especially after Indian tea began to arrive in large quantities; by the late 19th century tea had become an everyday beverage for all levels of society. 47 The popularity of tea also informed a number of historical events the tea act of 1773 provoked the boston tea party that escalated into the American revolution, and the need to address the issue of British trade deficit caused by the demand for Chinese. 48 Chinese small leaf type tea was introduced into India in 1836 by the British in an attempt to break the Chinese monopoly on tea. 49 In 1841, Archibald Campbell brought seeds of Chinese tea from the kumaun region and experimented with planting tea in Darjeeling. The Alubari tea garden was opened in 1856 and Darjeeling tea began to be produced. In 1848, robert Fortune was sent by the east India company on a mission to China to bring the tea plant back to Great Britain. He began his journey in high secrecy as his mission occurred in the lull between the Anglo-Chinese first Opium War (18391842) and Second Opium War (18561860). 51 The Chinese tea plants he brought back were introduced to the himalayas, though most did not survive.
The first record of tea in English came from a letter written by richard Wickham, who ran an East India company office in Japan, writing to a merchant in Macao requesting "the best sort of chaw" in 1615. Peter Mundy, a traveller and merchant who came across tea in Fujian in 1637, wrote, " chaa — only water with a kind of herb boyled in it ". 43 44 tea was sold in a coffee house in London in 1657, samuel Pepys tasted tea in 1660, and Catherine of Braganza took the tea-drinking habit to the British court when she married Charles ii in 1662. Tea, however, was not widely consumed in Britain until the 18th century, and remained expensive until the latter part of that period. British drinkers preferred to add sugar and milk to black tea, and black tea overtook green tea in popularity in the 1720s. 45 tea smuggling during the 18th century led to the general public being able to afford and consume tea. The British government removed the tax on tea, thereby eliminating the smuggling trade by 1785. 46 In Britain and Ireland, tea was initially consumed as a luxury item on special occasions, such as religious festivals, wakes, and domestic work gatherings.
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Among the tasks listed to be undertaken by the youth, the contract states that "he shall boil tea and fill the utensils" and "he shall buy tea at wuyang". The first record of tea cultivation is also dated to this period (the reign of Emperor xuan of Han during which tea was cultivated on Meng mountain near Chengdu. Another early credible record of tea drinking dates to the third century ad, in a medical text by hua tuo, who stated, "to drink bitter t'u constantly makes one think better." 36 However, before the mid-8th century tang dynasty, tea-drinking was primarily a southern Chinese. It became widely popular during the tang Dynasty, when it was spread to korea, japan, and vietnam. Through the centuries, a variety of techniques for processing tea, and a number of different forms of tea, were the developed. During the tang dynasty, tea was steamed, then pounded and shaped into cake form, while in the song dynasty, loose-leaf tea was developed and became popular. During the yuan and Ming dynasties, unoxidized tea leaves were first pan-fried, then rolled and dried, a process that stops the oxidation process that turns the leaves dark, thereby allowing tea to remain green.
In the 15th century, oolong tea, in which the leaves were allowed to partially oxidize before pan-frying, was developed. Western tastes, however, favoured the fully oxidized black tea, and the leaves were allowed to oxidize further. Yellow tea was an accidental discovery in the production of green tea during the ming dynasty, when apparently sloppy practices allowed the leaves to turn yellow, but yielded a different flavour as a result. Tea was first introduced to portuguese priests and merchants in China during the 16th century, at which time it was termed chá. 7 The earliest European reference to tea, written as Chiai, came from Delle navigationi e viaggi written by a venetian, giambattista ramusio, in 1545. The first recorded shipment of tea by a european nation was in 1607 when the dutch East India company moved a cargo of tea from Macao to java, then two years later, the dutch bought the first assignment of tea which was from Hirado. Tea became a fashionable drink in The hague in the netherlands, and the dutch introduced the drink to germany, france and across the Atlantic to new Amsterdam (New York).
However, as the Indian Assam tea shares no haplotypes with Western Yunnan Assam tea, indian Assam tea is likely to have originated from an independent domestication. Some Indian Assam tea appears to have hybridized with the species Camellia pubicosta. 28 29 Assuming a generation of 12 years, Chinese small leaf tea is estimated to have diverged from Assam tea around 22,000 years ago while Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea diverged 2,800 years ago. The divergence of Chinese small leaf tea and Assam tea would correspond to the last glacial maximum. 28 29 tea drinking may have begun in the yunnan region during the Shang Dynasty in China, when it was used for medicinal purposes.
It is also believed that in Sichuan, "people began to boil tea leaves for consumption into a concentrated liquid without the addition of other leaves or herbs, thereby using tea as a bitter yet stimulating drink, rather than as a medicinal concoction." Chinese legends attribute. 26 The earliest written records of tea come from China. The word tú appears in the Shijing and other ancient texts to signify a kind of "bitter vegetable" and it is possible that it referred to a number of different plants such as sowthistle, chicory, or smartweed, as well as tea. In the Chronicles of huayang, it was recorded that the ba people in Sichuan presented tu to the Zhou king. The state of ba and its neighbour Shu were later conquered by the qin, and according to the 17th century scholar gu yanwu who wrote in ri zhi lu "It was after the qin had taken Shu that they learned how to drink tea." Another. 31 The earliest known physical evidence 32 of tea was discovered in 2016 in the mausoleum of Emperor Jing of Han in xi'an, indicating that tea from the genus Camellia was drunk by han Dynasty emperors as early as the 2nd century. 33 The han dynasty work "The contract for a youth written by wang bao in 59 bc, 34 contains the first known reference to boiling tea.
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27 There appears to have been at least three separate domestication golf events of tea summary and possibly four. Chinese (small leaf) tea chinese western Yunnan Assam (large leaf) tea indian Assam (large leaf) tea chinese southern Yunnan Assam (large leaf) tea chinese (small leaf) type tea (. Sinensis ) may have originated in southern China possibly with hybridization of unknown wild tea relatives. However, since there are no known wild populations of this tea, the precise location of its origin is speculative. 28 29 given their genetic differences forming distinct clades, chinese Assam type tea (. Assamica ) may have two different parentages one being found in southern Yunnan ( Xishuangbanna, pu'er City ) and the other in western Yunnan ( Lincang, baoshan ). Many types of southern Yunnan assam tea have been hybridized with the closely related species Camellia taliensis. Unlike southern Yunnan Assam tea, western Yunnan Assam tea shares many genetic similarities with Indian Assam type tea (also. Thus, western Yunnan Assam tea and Indian Assam tea both may have originated from the same parent plant in the area where southwestern China, indo-burma, and Tibet meet.
The portuguese adopted the cantonese pronunciation "chá and stuff spread it to India. 19 However, the korean and Japanese pronunciations of cha were not from Cantonese, but were borrowed into korean and Japanese during earlier periods of Chinese history. A third form, the increasingly widespread chai, came from Persian tʃɒi chay. Both the châ and chây forms are found in Persian dictionaries. 24 The few exceptions of words for tea that do not fall into the three broad groups of te, cha and chai are mostly from the minor languages from the botanical homeland of the tea plant from which the Chinese words for tea might have. English has all three forms: cha or char (both pronounced /tʃɑ/ attested from the 16th century; tea, from the 17th; and chai, from the 20th. However, the form chai refers specifically to a black tea mixed with honey, spices and milk in contemporary English. 25 Origin and history further information: History of tea a 19th-century japanese painting depicting Shennong : Chinese legends credit Shennong with the invention of tea. 26 tea plants are native to east Asia, and probably originated in the borderlands of north Burma and southwestern China.
dzo all arose from the. There were other ancient words for tea, though ming ( ) is the only other one still in common use. 15 It has been proposed that the Chinese words for tea, tu, cha and ming, may have been borrowed from the austro-Asiatic languages of people who inhabited southwest China; cha for example may have been derived from an archaic Austro-Asiatic root * la, meaning "leaf". Most Chinese languages, such as Mandarin and Cantonese, pronounce it along the lines of cha, but hokkien and teochew Chinese varieties along the southern coast of China pronounce it like teh. These two pronunciations have made their separate ways into other languages around the world. 17 Starting in the early 17th century, the dutch played a dominant role in the early european tea trade via the dutch East India company. 18 The dutch borrowed the word for "tea" ( thee ) from Min Chinese, either through trade directly from hokkien speakers in Formosa where they had established a port, or from Malay traders in Bantam, java. 19 The dutch then introduced to other European languages this Min pronunciation for tea, including English tea, french thé, spanish té, and German tee. 20 This pronunciation is also the most common form worldwide. The Cha pronunciation came from the cantonese chàh of guangzhou (Canton) and the ports of Hong Kong and Macau, which were also major points of contact, especially with the portuguese traders who settled Macau in the 16th century.
Tang dynasty, and tea drinking spread to other East Asian countries. Portuguese priests and merchants introduced it to europe during the list 16th century. 7, during the 17th century, drinking tea became fashionable among Britons, who started large-scale production and commercialization of the plant in India to bypass the Chinese monopoly. Combined, China and India supplied 62 of the world's tea in 2016. The term herbal tea refers to drinks not made from. Camellia sinensis : infusions of fruit, leaves, or other parts of the plant, such as steeps of rosehip, chamomile, or rooibos. These are sometimes 8 called tisanes or herbal infusions to prevent confusion with tea made from the tea plant. Contents Etymology main article: Etymology of tea the Chinese character for tea is, originally written with an extra stroke as (pronounced tú, used as a word for a bitter herb and acquired its current form during the tang Dynasty. 9 10 11 The word is pronounced differently in the different varieties of Chinese, such as chá in Mandarin, zo and dzo in wu chinese, and ta and te in Min Chinese.
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This article is about the beverage made from Camellia sinensis. For other uses, see. "Cup of tea" redirects here. Tea plant, tea hokkien : tê ) is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the, camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia. 3, after water, it diary is the most widely consumed drink in the world. There are many different types of tea; some, like. Darjeeling and, chinese greens, have a cooling, slightly bitter, and astringent flavour, 5 while others have vastly different profiles that include sweet, nutty, floral or grassy notes. Tea originated in, southwest China, where it was used as a medicinal drink. It was popularized as a recreational drink during the Chinese.