Dreyfuss (18791957) finding (in Melancholy die melancholie, 1907) that almost all cases of involutional melancholia in fact displayed the features of manicdepressive illness. The concept of involutional melancholia itself, however, went on to a hearty life outside of Kraepelins textbooks and was put to rest only by the demonstration in the 1970s that depression in the elderly responded in the same way to medication as in other age. Manic-depressive illness (das manisch-depressive irresein) (1899). See manic-depressive illness: Kraepelin (1899). "Depression" becomes preferred to "melancholia" (ca. After Emil Kraepelin abandoned melancholy for depression in the fifth edition (1896) of his text, he lent his great prestige to this change. Then, in the United States, Adolf meyer, professor of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University, gave the decisive push. In 1904, he told a meeting of the new York neurological Society that, in the words of the stenographer, "On the whole, he was desirous of eliminating the term melancholia, which implied a knowledge of something that we did not possess.
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See paranoia (1883) as a late complication of melancholia. In his 1893 textbook on nervous diseases, paul good Julius Möbius (18531907 a neurologist in leipzig, initiated the distinction between "exogenous" nervous diseases, meaning illnesses having a specific and definable cause, and endogenous nervous diseases, "for which the only essential precondition is a certain inborn predisposition;. Möbius, who prided himself on having devised a system of practical use, said, "From the practical viewpoint, it must be emphasized that we are almost powerless against all endogenous illnesses. Once the illness is manifest, direct influencing of it is impossible" (p. The distinction was not widely noted until the terms were again picked up in 1909 by karl Bonhoeffer (18681948 then psychiatry professor in Breslau, who distinguished between exogenous causes of affective disorders (meaning organic causes coming from outside, such as alcoholism, poisoning, or peripheral organ. In affective disorders, he considered some kinds of mania (such as febrile) to be exogenous, whereas manicdepressive illness and pure depression were endogenous. In his article in the central journal for Nervous Diseases and Psychiatry ( Zentralblatt für Nervenheilkunde und Psychiatrie bonhoeffer did not confine himself to affective disorders. (Note: In Bonhoeffers grammar parlance, exogenous is restricted to biological causes; it does not mean "reactive. see anhedonia (1896 and later). In the 1896 edition (fifth edition) of his influential textbook, psychiatry, emil Kraepelin distinguished between forms of melancholia that were acquired, such as the melancholia of middle and old age (the result of "involution which required no predisposition and all the other forms of mania. (In this edition, Kraepelin started using the term "depression" rather than "melancholia" for all the others.) Kraepelin, however, abandoned the notion of involutional melancholia in the eighth edition (1913) of his book, after familiarizing himself with georges.
Schioldann, is also available.) In 1898, Ewald Hecker (18431909 chief physician of a private nerve sanatorium in wiesbaden, germany, voiced the general suspicion that most of these cases of periodic depression really corresponded to karl Kahlbaums cyclothymia ( see manic-Depressive illness 1882) cyclothymia: a circular mood. Anxiety as a fundamental part of depression (1880). Although clinicians had always noted that depression and anxiety tended to occur together, among the first psychiatry writers to characterize depression as including anxiety was Christian Roller (?1897 the son of Christian. Roller (18021878 who practiced in a private asylum in Strasbourg. Writing in the general journal of Psychiatry ( Allgemeine zeitschrift für Psychiatrie roller said that, "If anything is typical of the large group of mental disorders that we are inclined to group together under the name of melancholia, it is anxiety" (p. Subsequent generations of psychiatrists debated whether anxiety and depression were really the same disorder or two separate disorders. See hypomania and Mania (1881).
( see his article "On Periodical Melancholia in the medical Record in 1875.) Apparently unaware of Neftels article, in 1878 Ludwig Kirn (18391899 a student of Christian. Roller (18021878) and a staff psychiatrist at the Illenau asylum, in his book the periodic Psychoses ( die periodischen Psychosen ) gave a sharply defined picture of all the periodic affective disorders, including the circular psychoses; thus, kirn provided a kind of collective label for. In 1886, danish physician Carl georg Lange (18341900 professor of pathological anatomy at the University of Copenhagen and considered Denmarks "first neurologist described "periodic psychic depression" as an independent illness with sudden onset, retardation, and numerous bodily changes such as loss of appetite and physical. This constituted "an energetic declaration in Danish psychiatrist Hans Jacob Schous words (H. Schou lived from 1886 to 1952 and was the father of Mogens Schou— see lithium Therapy that endogenous depression had a possibly physical cause (Lange found elevated uric acid in the patients urine). (The work was published in Danish; see the german translation of the second Danish edition, periodische depressionszustände 1896. See also Schous 1927 summary of it in the Acta psych. An English translation 2001, edited by johan.
Anxiety and, depression, essay - 1469 Palabras Cram
Karl Kahlbaum distinguished systematically between underlying diseases, which might produce affective disorders, and the actual symptoms of helping melancholia, which he called dysthymia. He made this discrimination in a larger work on nosology called The Classification of business Psychic Illnesses ( die gruppirung der psychischen Krankheiten ). Kahlbaum thus nailed down a distinction begun by Flemming and others (Psychosis: Emergence: distinction. 1844) between primary disease and momentary illness presentation. Some scholars feel that Kahlbaums dysthymia is significant as "the hour of birth of endogenous depression" (Schmidt-Degenhart,. In the book, kahlbaum also distinguished between psychotic melancholy (a vesania, as he borrowed William Cullens term for the class) and nonpsychotic dysthymia (a kind of partial insanity for which he coined the term "Vecordia vecordy was a seventeenthcentury English expression for madness).
(Elsewhere, kahlbaum also chiseled out pieces of what would later be called schizophrenia, thus narrowing dysthymia to its modern meaning of emotional disorder, rather than a synonym for "madness. ( see schizophrenia: Emergence : Vesania typica 1863; catatonia 1874.) Also among the vecordia was "paranoia a "disturbance of intelligence" (not paranoia in the sense of delusional disorder, which latter he called "diastrephia. It is noteworthy that for dysthymia and paranoia, as "partial mental diseases the personality remains intact, unlike the vesaniae (p. Periodical melancholia (1875 and following years). Although Falret and baillarger had by 1854 described the periodic alternation of depression and mania ( see manic-depressive illness it was not until the work in 1875 of Russian emigré physician and New York electrotherapist William Basil Neftel (18301906) that recurrent unipolar depression was characterized.
General journal of Psychiatry, allgemeine zeitschrift für Psychiatrie,. Flemming considered "dysthymias" to be "emotional disorders" (Gefühlskrankheiten). Yet, Flemmings own ardor for his new concept was tepid, and he had abandoned it in favor of "mood depression" (Gemüths-depression) by the time he wrote his big textbook in 1859, pathology and Treatment of the Psychoses ( Pathologie und Therapie der Psychosen ) (p. See manic-Depressive illness : circular insanity (1851). Hypochondria as a subform of depression (1860).
Although hypochondria had been associated with melancholia since the Ancients, what was previously understood by melancholia had little to do with depression and much with undifferentiated madness. In the early nineteenth century, a whole generation of psychiatrists began to use "depression" and "melancholia" in the modern sense: hence the relationship of depression to hypochondria became of renewed interest. Unlike publicasylum psychiatrists, who rarely saw such conditions as hypochondria, those in the private sector did. Vienna psychiatrist Max leidesdorf (18191889) had extensive experience with private psychiatric clinics, where the threshold of illness was lower. In 1860, in addition to lecturing at the university, he had just joined the staff of a prestigious private clinic in viennas Ober-Döbling suburb when he brought out his psychiatric textbook, pathology and Therapy of Psychic Illnesses ( Pathologie und Therapie der psychischen Krankheiten ). In the section on "conditions of psychic depression he distinguished among hypochondria, which was the milder stage, and melancholia, the more severe stage. In hypochondria, "the patients feelings turn entirely about their health, the condition of which occupies their whole attention." The difference between hypochondria and melancholia, said leidesdorf, was that "the hypochondriac seeks medical advice and assistance constantly; he makes contact and has confidence, albeit tenuous and. The melancholic does not seek medical advice, and occupies himself with plans for his suicide" (p. 154 of the second edition, in 1865, entitled Textbook of Psychiatric Illnesses lehrbuch der psychischen Krankheiten ).
Depression and, anxiety, essay
In his essay "On dementia" in the. Dictionary of Science and Medicine dictionnaire des sciences médicales he illustrated the difference: "The anger of the demented lasts only a moment. It has nothing of the tenacity of those with mania and above night all of those with lypemania melancholic depression" (pp. see also, psychosis: Emergence: Esquirols monomania.) Although Esquirol earlier introduced the term "lypemania" as a virtual synonym for melancholia, it was only in 1820, in an essay "On Lypemania or Melancholia" de la lypémanie ou mélancholie that he fully characterized the disorder and differentiated. He considered lypemania primarily an affective, or emotional, form of melancholia and scorned the term "melancholia" itself as associated with discredited humoral theories involving "bile." Esquirols lypemania represents the first occasion in which a prominent psychiatrist presented melancholic depression as a disturbance of affect rather. Carl Friedrich Flemming (17991880 chief physician at a newly opened asylum in Sachsenberg bei schwerin in Germany, proposed "dysthymia atra" as a replacement for melancholia, which had become a heterogeneous kind of grab bag of symptoms. (Atra means black in Greek, and atrabile was a classical Greek term for melancholy.) It consisted of "sadness, fear and anxiety, mistrust, and irritability (Übelwollen (.
Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the diseases of Mind " from 3rd., 1827,. In 1818, johann Christian August heinroth, an asylum psychiatrist in leipzig (17731843) ( see, german "Romantic" Psychiatry in his, textbook of the disturbances of Mental Life lehrbuch der Störungen des seelenlebens became one of the first psychiatric writers to use the terms "depression" and "exaltation". "The principle and the stimulus of evil affect men in two ways, just as poison works in two opposite manners: positively or negatively, stupefyingly book or paralyzingly. A life affected by the first kind is distinguished by exaltation and that affected by the second, by depression" (Moras English translation, i, 125). Karl Wigand Maximilian Jacobi (17751858 director of the siegburg asylum in Germany, often used the term "depression" in its modern sense in his descriptions of clinical cases. In his 1844 text. The main Forms of Mental Illness die hauptformen der seelenstörungen jacobi described one patient who alternated "episodes of raucous and boisterous excitement" with delirium and "depression" (I,. Differential diagnosis of depression from dementia (1814). Étienne Esquirol was among the first to differentiate dementia from the form of depression that he termed lypemania.
the courtly physicians had given. This circumstance was sufficient to transfer both the disease and the remedy to all who had the least pretensions to rank" (. Medical cautions for the consideration of Invalids,. "Depression" as a term (pre-1850). Although melancholia was the preferred expression for dysphoria and insanity, the term "depression from the latin "de" (down) and "premere" (to press nonetheless appeared in medical writing as early as the seventeenth century in the context of mood disorder, or emotional disorder. In 1765, Edinburgh physician Robert Whytt (17141766 one of the founders of neurophysiology, in his. Observations on the nature, causes, and Cure of those diseases which have been Commonly called Nervous, hypochondriac or Hysteric, described "depression of mind" associated with hypochondriasis and dysphoria (p. He added: "When low spirits proceed from a suppression of the menses or haemorrhoids, if these evacuations cannot be restored, some others must be substituted in their place: but nothing has such sudden good effects as bleeding" (p. "Depression of mind may be induced by causes that are forgotten noted American psychiatrist Benjamin Rush in 1812 in his.
Before the mid-nineteenth century, several diagnostic terms in medicine were historically equivalent to depression, such as "vapours" and "hysteric fits." In 1707, london physician John Purcell (1674?1730) said of patients with "vapours "Those who have laboured long under this distemper are oppressed with a dreadful. They decline all diversions." "Melancholy in hysterical people is easily cured in the beginning, but when it has taken deep root, and the patients avoid and shun company, then. It is to be feared they will endeavour to make themselves away" (. A treatise of Vapours or Hysterick fits, 2nd.,. Such terms clearly include many other symptoms than those conventionally reckoned to depression, yet they do embrace depression. By mid-eighteenth century, spleen and "hyp" -ochondria had become fashionable diagnoses. As society physician george Cheyne (16711743 then practicing in the spa town of Bath, explained to novelist Samuel Richardson (16891761) in a letter in 1742, "We call the hyp every distemper attended with lowness of spirits, whether it be flatulence from book indigestion. Head-pains, or a universal relaxed state of the nerves, with numbness, weakness, startings, tremblings, etc., so that the hyp is only a short expression for any kind of nervous disorder with whatever symptoms" (Mullett,., letters,. In 1786, james.
Essay, anxiety and, depression - 1545 Words major Tests
The word "depression" has a number of meanings, depending on the discipline. Within neurophysiology, it refers to a decrease in the brains electrical activity causing, for example, "cortical depression." For the pharmacologist, depression means drug actions that decrease the activity of the central nervous system, such as barbiturates and anesthetics. In psychology, depression stands for any decrease in performance, such as in psychomotor activity or intellectual agility. As for psychiatry, depression can mean a normal human emotion, a symbol of mood that may plan become pathological if it is retained too long or too deeply; a depressive syndrome that may, or may not, include a depressed mood; or a reactive depression precipitated. First described as melancholia, a term of such amplitude reverberates across the history of psychiatry. There follow some important concepts in the emergence of the diagnosis of depression. (For more current events, see, depression and mood Disorders: Recent Concepts.