It underwent a dramatic revival during the 19th century; from a population of 5,000 in 1806, it grew into a city of more than 200,000 inhabitants by 1882, 11 and is now home to more than four million people. 12 In Algeria, many cities became hamlets after the end of Late Antiquity. They were revived with shifts in population during and after French colonization of Algeria. Oran, currently the nation's second largest city with 1 million people, was a village of only a few thousand people before colonization. Foncebadón, a village in león, spain that was mostly abandoned and only inhabited by a mother and son, is slowly being revived owing to the ever-increasing stream of pilgrims on the road to santiago de compostela. Around the world edit see also: List of ghost towns by country Africa edit wars and rebellions in some African countries have left many towns and villages deserted.
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Catastrophic environmental damage caused by long-term contamination can also create a ghost town. Some notable examples are times beach, missouri, whose residents were exposed to a high level of dioxins, and Wittenoom, western Australia, which was lite once australia's largest source of blue asbestos, but was shut down in 1966 due to health concerns. Treece and Picher, twin communities straddling the marketing kansas oklahoma border, were once one of the United States' largest sources of zinc and lead, but over a century of unregulated disposal of mine tailings led to groundwater contamination and lead poisoning in the town's children, eventually. Contamination due to ammunition caused by military use may also lead to the development of ghost towns. Rerik west, an area of Rerik, germany, had been home to a group of soviet Forces in Germany barracks during the german Democratic Republic, but following German reunification it was abandoned due to ammunition contamination from the barracks. Located on a peninsula separated from Rerik by a small isthmus, in 1992 it was turned into a restricted area while the rest of the town remained populated. Revived ghost towns edit walhalla, victoria was almost abandoned after being mined for gold, but is now becoming repopulated. A few ghost towns get a second life, often due to heritage tourism generating a new economy able to support residents. For example, walhalla, victoria, australia, became almost deserted 10 after its gold mine ceased operation in 1914, but owing to its accessibility and proximity to other attractive locations, it has had a recent economic and holiday population surge. Alexandria, the second largest city of Egypt, was a flourishing city in the Ancient era, but declined during the middle Ages.
Two decades earlier, the summary canadian town of saint-jean-vianney, québec, also constructed on a leda clay base, had been abandoned after a landslide on, which swept away 41 homes, killing 31 people. Following the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, dangerously high levels of nuclear radiation escaped into the surrounding area, and nearly 200 towns and villages in Ukraine and neighbouring Belarus were evacuated, including the cities of Pripyat and Chernobyl. The area was, and still is, so contaminated with nuclear radiation that many of the evacuees were never permitted to return to their homes. Pripyat is the most famous of these abandoned towns; it was built for the workers of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and had a population of almost 50,000 at the time of the disaster. 7 Disease and contamination edit rerik west in Rerik, germany. Turned into a restricted area after 1992 due to ammunition contamination from a nearby abandoned soviet Army barracks. Significant fatality rates from epidemics have produced ghost towns. Some places in eastern Arkansas were abandoned after more than 7,000 Arkansans died during the Spanish Flu epidemic of 198 9 several communities in Ireland, particularly in the west of the country, were wiped out due to the Great Famine in the latter half.
For example, after being flooded more than 30 times since their town was founded in 1845, residents of Pattonsburg, missouri, decided to relocate after two floods in 1993. With government help, the whole town was rebuilt 3 miles (4.8 km) away. Craco, a medieval village in the Italian region of Basilicata, was evacuated after a landslide in 1963. Nowadays it is a famous filming location for many movies, including The passion of The Christ by mel Gibson, christ Stopped at Eboli by Francesco rosi, the nativity Story by catherine hardwicke and quantum of Solace by marc Forster. 6 In 1984, centralia, pennsylvania was abandoned due to an uncontainable mine fire, which began in 1962 and still rages to this day; eventually the fire reached an abandoned mine underneath the nearby town of Byrnesville, pennsylvania, which caused that mine to catch on fire. Ghost towns may also occasionally come into being due to an anticipated natural disaster for example, the canadian town of Lemieux, Ontario was abandoned in 1991 after soil testing revealed that the community was built on an unstable bed of Leda clay. Two years after the last building in Lemieux was demolished, a landslide swept part of the former town-site into the south Nation river.
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The study town was reorganised and reconstructed on nearby higher ground. Other examples are The lost Villages of Ontario flooded by saint Lawrence seaway construction in 1958, the hamlets of Nether Hambleton and Middle hambleton in Rutland, england, which were flooded to create rutland Water, and the villages of Ashopton and Derwent, england, flooded during the. Mologa in Russia was flooded by the creation of Rybinsk reservoir, and in France the tignes Dam flooded the village of Tignes, displacing 78 families. Many ancient villages had to be abandoned during construction of the Three gorges Dam in China, leading to displacement of many rural people. In the costa rican province of guanacaste, the town of Arenal was rebuilt to make room for the man-made lake arenal. The old town now lies submerged below the lake. Old Adaminaby was flooded by a dam of the Snowy river Scheme.
Construction of the Aswan High Dam on the nile river in Egypt submerged archaeological sites and ancient settlements such as Buhen under lake nasser. Massacres edit some towns become deserted when their populations are massacred. The original French village at Oradour-sur-Glane was destroyed on when 642 of its 663 inhabitants, including women and children, were killed by a german Waffen-ss company. A new village was built after the war on a nearby site, and the ruins of the original have been maintained as a memorial. Disasters, actual and anticipated edit Craco, italy, was abandoned due to a landslide in 1963. Now it is a popular film set. Natural and man-made disasters can create ghost towns.
Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, and residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, england, acquired during World War ii to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the. When nasa acquired land to construct the john. Stennis Space center (ssc a rocket testing facility in Hancock county, mississippi (on the mississippi side of the pearl river, which is the mississippi louisiana state line). This required nasa to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88 km2) buffer zone because of the loud noise and potential dangers associated with testing such rockets.
Five thinly populated rural Mississippi communities (Gainesville, logtown, napoleon, santa rosa, and Westonia plus the northern portion of a sixth ( pearlington along with 700 families in residence, had to be completely relocated off the facility. Sometimes the town might cease to officially exist, but the physical infrastructure remains. For example, the five mississippi communities that had to be abandoned to build ssc still have remnants of those communities within the facility itself. These include city streets, now overgrown with forest flora and fauna, and a one-room school house. Another example of infrastructure remaining is the former town of Weston, Illinois, that voted itself out of existence and turned the land over for construction of the fermi national Accelerator Laboratory. Many houses and even a few barns remain, used for housing visiting scientists and storing maintenance equipment, while roads that used to cross through the site have been blocked off at the edges of the property, with gatehouses or simply barricades to prevent unsupervised access. Flooding by dams edit construction of dams has produced ghost towns that have been left underwater. Examples include the settlement of loyston, tennessee,. S., inundated by the creation of Norris Dam.
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The middle east has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be socially or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real shredder estate bubbles also leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available. Such examples include China and Canada, where housing is often used as an investment rather than for habitation. Human intervention edit railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town. This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo line, and along. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40. Some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam general trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, california was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific railroad across the mojave desert. River re-routing is another factor, one example being the towns along the Aral sea.
Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation, shops and services required, and then remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would often bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community; some former mining towns. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of thesis highway traffic as us 66 was diverted away from places like oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place. This happened to collingwood, queensland in Outback australia when nearby winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of queensland, and Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year.
The American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was simply "a shadowy semblance of a former self". 4 reasons for abandonment edit factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere, railroads and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, disasters, massacres, wars, and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. 5 A town can also be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Economic activity shifting elsewhere edit As farms industrialize, smaller farms are no longer economically viable, leading to rural decay. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown (e.g., nearby mine, mill or resort) is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust" (e.g., catastrophic resource price collapse). Boomtowns can often decrease in size as fast as they initially grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town, resulting in a ghost town. The dismantling of a boomtown can often occur on a planned basis.
1, some ghost towns, especially those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions. Bannack, calico, centralia, oatman, and, south Pass City in the United States, barkerville in Canada, craco in Italy, elizabeth bay and, kolmanskop in Namibia, pripyat in Ukraine, and, danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town that is the de jure capital of Montserrat. It was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. Contents Definition edit The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, and between cultures. Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or parts human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable;. Lindsey baker, author of Ghost Towns of Texas, defines a ghost town as "a town for which the reason for being no longer exists". 1 Some believe that any settlement with visible tangible remains should not be called a ghost town; 2 others say, conversely, that a ghost town should contain the tangible remains of buildings.
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Orgbad credit loans in pa/url pre settlement loan residential loan application a credit application /a no guarantor loans urlhttps payday365day. Orgbad credit loans edmonton/url bad credit and need a loan personal loan with bad credit a loan /a ohio loan urlhttps payday365day. Orgnew payday lenders/url installment loans albuquerque with 500 credit score personal loan a day deposit payday loans online /a bad credit installment loan to borrow money fast/url best loans online «. For settlements that never existed, see. For other uses, see, ghost town (disambiguation). Plymouth, montserrat, is the only ghost town that is the capital of a modern political territory. A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city, usually one that contains substantial visible remains. A town often becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, war, pollution, or nuclear disasters. The term can sometimes refer to cities, towns, and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but significantly less so than in years past; for example, those affected by high levels of unemployment and dereliction.