It is unknown whether or not the additional expense of digital video and computer processing will prove cost-effective as a replacement for the simpler uncompacted void content test. Figure 6: Aggregate imaging system. Figure 7: Close-up of the aggregate imaging system table. Test Description The following description is a brief summary of the faa test, method. It is not a complete procedure and should not be used to perform the test. The complete faa test procedure can be found in: aashto t 304 or astm c 1252: Uncompacted void Content of Fine Aggregate summary a nominal 100 mL calibrated cylindrical measure is filled with fine aggregate of definite grading by allowing the sample to flow through. The aggregate is then struck off and its mass is calculated by weighing. The uncompacted void content is calculated using the bulk dry specific gravity of the fine aggregate determined by aashto.
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Alternate faa tests, because of the above issues, alternate methods to characterize fine aggregate shape, texture and angularity have been developed. Nchrp report 555, test Methods for Characterizing Aggregate Shape, texture, and Angularity, compared different test methods for evaluating aggregate characteristics (Masad., 2007 3 ). The compacted Aggregate resistance (CAR) Test. Jahn (2004 4 ) and others suggest a replacement test called the compacted Aggregate resistance test (CAR). This test is similar to a california bearing Ratio (CBR) test where a piston is placed on a confined sample of fine aggregate and the total piston load is recorded for different penetration depths. The fine aggregate is tested in an as received condition, meaning its gradation remains in tact. Therefore, test results not only account for form, angularity and texture, but they also account for fine aggregate gradation. Video (Figure 6 and Figure 7). Several research efforts are aimed at using video technology along with digital image processing to more accurately characterize aggregate angularity, surface texture and shape (Masad and Button, 2000 5 ; Masad., 2000 6 ; Fletcher., 2003 7 ; and rao. These efforts have proved essay quite successful, however reliable standard laboratory tests are still under development.
Current faa issues, it has been found through research that the faa test method does not consistently identify angular, cubical aggregates as high quality materials (Chowdhury., 2001 1 ). The basic test assumption is that more fractured faces will result in higher void content in the loosely compacted sample; therefore a specification on air void content is a good proxy for much more difficult-to-measure specifications on fine type aggregate fractured faces and shape. This assumption is not always true. Cubical shaped particles with 100 percent fractured faces (highly desirable characteristics) may not meet the faa requirement of 45 for high-volume traffic. In some areas of the. It can be difficult to meet this requirement with local aggregate sources (Haddock, 2000 2 ). (2001 1 ) recommend a reduction of the high-volume traffic specification.
Method b is more time consuming and requires a larger initial sample, but provides additional information concerning the shape and texture characteristics of individual sizes. Method B will give higher void contents than method a or C because it is dealing with uniformly graded samples and thus, there are no aggregate particles of smaller sizes to fill in the voids between the uniformly sized particles. Figure 4: Method. This method measures the uncompacted void content of the minus. 4 (4.75 mm) portion of the as received material (Figure 5). With method c, the measured void content depends not only on particle shape and texture, but gradation essays as well. Figure 5: Method.
Research has shown that the results for various materials tested by method a and b are highly correlated. Method a, this method uses a sample of a specified gradation that is obtained by combining individual sieve size fractions from a typical fine aggregate sieve analysis (Figure 3). Method a is most useful as a quick test to indicate the particle shape, angularity and texture properties of a fine graded sample. Method A results are relatively independent of actual as-obtained gradation because the particles are first sieved and then recombined in a precise gradation. Figure 3: Method. Method b, this method uses each of three fine aggregate size factions. Each size is tested separately (Figure 4).
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Angular particles do not compact as readily as rounded particles because their angular surfaces tend to lock up with one another and resist compaction, while smoother, more rounded surfaces tend to pass by one another allowing for easier compaction. Therefore, the higher the measured uncompacted void content, the more angular the material. Figure 2: More angular (left). More rounded (right) fine aggregate. Angular materials are desirable in paving mixtures because they tend to lock together and resist deformation after initial compaction, whereas rounded materials may not produce sufficient inter-particle friction to prevent rutting. The measured uncompacted voids are affected by the shape, angularity and texture of the fine aggregate, the aggregate grading and specific gravity. Faa can indicate the effect of the fine aggregate portion of the mixture on the overall properties of the mixture.
It is generally believed that low faa values will result in an unstable hma mixture (e.g., potential for rutting and shoving) and high faa values will result in a stable hma mixture if all other mixture properties are satisfactory. The national Aggregates Association (NAA) developed the original test upon which the faa test is based. The faa test has been adopted as a superpave consensus aggregate requirement. Faa methods, there are three methods used for finding void content. Methods a and b are generally specified when trying to compare the angularity of different fine aggregate sources to remove the effect of gradation. Superpave specifies Method A to determine faa.
Support and sub-space types, such as office spaces, private toilets, and filing and storage areas are included. Overview, the fine aggregate angularity (FAA) test (Figure 1) is an indirect method of assessing the angularity of fine aggregate. Fine aggregate angularity is important because an excess of rounded fine aggregate (often in the form of natural sand) can lead to hma rutting. Figure 1: Fine aggregate angularity test. The faa test estimates fine aggregate angularity by measuring the loose uncompacted void content of a fine aggregate sample.
On a sample of known gradation, the loose uncompacted void content is indicative of the relative angularity and surface texture of the sample. The higher the void content, the higher the assumed angularity and rougher the surface. This test is used to ensure that the blend of fine aggregate has sufficient angularity and texture to resist permanent deformation (rutting) for a given traffic level. The standard fine aggregate angularity test is: aashto t 304 or astm c 1252: Uncompacted void Content of Fine Aggregate. Background, the faa test indirectly measures the angularity of fine aggregate using the aggregates uncompacted void content. Angularity is a description of the degree of roughness, surface irregularities or sharp angles of the aggregate particles (Figure 2).
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Resistance to stripping, color of aggregate, average least dimension. Resistance to wear by attrition, unconfined compressive strength, chloride sulfate sugar content. Petrographic examination, oversize particle size distribution and shape. Our in-house aggregate testing methods include: Sampling from a conveyor belt, truck, stockpile, rock spall, boulder and drill core sample preparation stabilized pavement material Contact us today to find out how our concrete and aggregate testing can help you comply with regulations and ensure quality. Wbdg wbdg whole building Design guide. Skip to main content, the gateway to Up-to-date Information on Integrated 'Whole building' design Techniques and Technologies. The goal of 'Whole building' design is to create a successful high-performance building by applying an integrated design and team approach you to the project during the planning and programming phases. Saint-Gobain and CertainTeed North American headquarters.
of your project. From our on-site quality control monitoring when you source the aggregate, right through to physical characterization in our specialized laboratories, our services include testing for: Bulk density, polished aggregate friction value, particle density and water absorption. Sieve analysis, material finer than 75 ìm, particle shape. Flakiness index, angularity number, fine particle size distribution, aggregate crushing value. Wet/dry strength variation, los Angeles Value, soundness. Weak particles, clay and fine silt, organic impurities other than sugar.
Control concrete quality during and after construction. Comprehensive concrete testing list for your project. We offer you comprehensive concrete testing at every stage of your project. From on-site slump testing as you pour your concrete, through to testing hardened samples for physical characteristics in our laboratories, our concrete testing includes: Sampling of fresh concrete and slump testing on site. Making and curing test specimens on your site and in our laboratory. Compression and flexural testing, compression tests on molded specimens and on hardened concrete cores. Mass per unit volume testing for hardened concrete. Securing and testing cores from hardened concrete. Flexural strength and toughness of hardened concrete.
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